Articles Tagged ‘Larkhill Consultancy - spectrum’

Broadcast/Mobile Broadband convergence – the slow road to nowhere?

EC Spectrum Policy Workshop -Broadcast/Broadband convergence 04 November 2014, Brussels

As part of its policy deliberations on the long-term future of the UHF bands, the European Commission commissioned a study on the options for Broadcast/Mobile broadband convergence. The findings from this study follow the report from the working group led by Pascal Lamy. The Lamy report recommended that broadcasting be cleared from the 700 MHz band by around 2020, with security given to broadcasting in the remaining 470-690 MHz until at least 2030 – with a review of the situation in around 2025.

The study whose findings were presented in the workshop reviewed a number of options for rolling back traditional broadcasting and introducing a ‘mobile-friendly’ downlink into the UHF band below 700 MHz (after rejecting options using the band above 700, except to provide an uplink). This downlink would displace the traditional high tower/high power broadcast network but could use DVB or LTE technology (which would use lower power lower tower deployment, supporting the greater coverage density needed to achieve a greater mobile user satisfaction).

In summary, the study found that the technical and regulatory foundations for convergence were not yet in place sufficiently to get a clear picture of costs and benefits. It recommended further work on the technical foundations and a further review of the situation in 3 to 5 years’ time.

Given the slow pace of work on the 700 MHz band, together with lack of clarity on the technical foundations for broadcast/mobile broadband convergence (and the commercial interest needed to make it happen).

Meanwhile convergence is moving quickly for mobile device users, with Wi-Fi being the predominant network technology for delivering audio and video services to mobile devices of all shapes and sizes. LTE is integrated in nearly a fifth of tablets and this figure may grow, but the purchase cost penalty (typically an extra £100 on an iPad, for example) will likely limit the share of market achieved. On the other hand, the lower cost Wi-Fi will be built into an increasing range of mobile/portable devices – including cameras and other types. Wi-Fi has a clearer roadmap, with fewer bands and variations to burden implementation, so it seems likely to remain the network interface of choice for mobile/portable applications for years to come.

In Europe at least, we’d have to agree with Pascal Lamy that there is little prospect of broadcasting being rolled back below 700 MHz much before 2030. Even the likely clearance of the 700 MHz is likely to last into the 2020s, with a number of administrations and broadcast network operators still feeling the pain from the 800 MHz clearance.

In more detail

The study team (which included ex-Ofcom William Webb) evaluated the costs and benefits of the various options for convergence – in so far as data was available. A few problems were identified:

  • They found it difficult to get data on converged viewing vs linear TV viewing…. need better measurement methods
  • The standards that might be used e.g. LTE Broadcast , have not yet defined (work for 3GPP to do)
  • The broadcast-related re-engineering costs are difficult to estimate, given diverse market and conditions across the EU
  • The spectrum yield that might arise from moving to all-Single Frequency Network (SFN) broadcasting is not fully pinned down
  • A period of simulcast would be required, but it isn’t clear where the spare spectrum would come from
  • WSD and PMSE users would see their capacity in UHF reduced – they would need to look elsewhere for additional capacity
  • Pinning down the value of spectrum (in terms of auction price) is difficult and evaluating its wider economic and societal benefit is harder still

The main options considered were around reallocation of sub-700 MHz spectrum from conventional DTT broadcast to some form of mobile-friendly unicast, from 2025 onwards. Making the unicast downlink-only reduces risk of interference to DTT receivers and in home TV distribution systems. The study team assumed that uplink for interactive services would occur in the bands from 700 MHz upwards. The team also assumed that EU member states would have moved to the more efficient DVB-T2 and that SFNs would widely adopted* by the time these options would be introduced, to provide the necessary capacity flexibility.

The technology that would be used for the unicasting is open at this point. LTE-Broadcast is not yet defined, but DVB-T2 could deliver a high level of spectrum efficiency (~5 bits/Hz).

*Qualcomm commissioned a report from ADTI on how low power SFNs could help free sufficient spectrum and hence create flexibility for progress on convergence. 

European Parliament votes for ending roaming charges & net neutrality

European consumers are set to benefit from lower costs and greater choice of online services in the future thanks to a recent vote on the first reading of new draft legislation in the European Parliament. This helps forward the European Commission's much discussed Connected Continent package and will allow the new session of the Parliament (following elections in May) to take the proposals further.

The draft legislation has a number of very significant proposals:

  • Much hated by travellers, mobile roaming charges are set to be abolished by the end of 2015 if the legislation is approved by the Council
  • Net neutrality is to enjoy greater protection, with more clearly defined constraints on when Traffic Management measures can be taken - throttling the access speed for particular users/applications. This should assist consumers who complain that applications such as Skype and netflix are impeded by some operators
  • More licence-exempt spectrum, through enabling dynamic spectrum access

MEPs are particularly aware of mobile roaming charges as they would tend to incur them nearly all the time - unless they happen to be from either Belgium or France, where the parliament buildings are. They are also aware of the growing popularity of over the top services.


Source Reuters, Europa.Eu

Larkhill to chair spectrum session at CERD 2014

For the second year, Larkhill is delighted to have been asked to chair a session at the Central European Radio Day (CERD) - an exploration of trends and developments in wireless technology, applications and regulation. The central theme of the morning session is spectrum efficiency and its relation with the European Single Market. We look forward to exploring this theme through presentations and panel sessions, with leading participants from around Europe.

With competition growing between broadcast and mobile broadband for the use of prime spectrum - namely the UHF bands, the European Commission recently kicked off a working group looking at the Future of UHF. Its outcomes will have major implications for wireless services of all kinds and for Europe's economy. This event is a timely opportunity to review what's at stake and to hear a range of perspectives - from industry and regulators.

Might the FCC be preparing to reserve UHF spectrum for unlicensed use?

A recent blog post by FCC Commission Chair Tom Wheeler has indicated that a draft rule & order has been circulated, laying out plans for an incentive auction in the 600 MHz band, currently being used by broadcasters. The proposals are thought to include measures to secure capacity for unlicensed (licence-exempt) use - including Channel 37 (currently kept clear for radio astronomy and medical applications). There is potential to make guard bands and duplex gaps available, in the event of broadcasters releasing the spectrum through the much discussed incentive auctions. Any measures to reserve licence exempt access would be helpful to the emerging white spaces technology market and helpful for increasing Wi-Fi coverage capability (through the recently published 802.11af variant).

It still remains to be seen exactly what will be offered in any auction, and which broadcasters would seek to avail themselves of any disposal options.

[Source: Article]

New advocacy group for Wi-Fi spectrum

A new advocacy coalition has just been launched in the US, calling on policymakers to open more licence exempt spectrum to support the rapid growth in Wi-Fi traffic. Called WifiForward, it is backed by an eclectic mix of Google, Microsoft, cable giants, the American Library Association, the Consumer Electronics Association and the International Association of Venue Managers , among others. The coalition's press release points to around $200 Billion in economic value already provided to the US economy through licence-exempt access and highlights opportunities to release further capacity in the UHF TV , 3.5 GHz and 5 GHz bands.

More information on WifiForward's website.


Ofcom reaffirms committment to spectrum sharing and white spaces

Ofcom's Draft Annual Plan for 2014 reaffirms the opening of TV white spaces as a priority issue and sees it as a foundation for future spectrum sharing policy. Over the last 12 months, Ofcom has put considerable effort and resources into fashioning a legal framework that will enable the gaps left between TV transmissions in the UHF bands (the TV white spaces) to be used safely for new applications - on a licence exempt basis. Ofcom is now holding a pilot of its regulations, which centre on the use of a geolocation database - by which white space devices (WSDs) can discover which channels are available in their location. The database will also advise what power levels are permitted in the available channels.

Ofcom reveals breadth and depth of UK TV white spaces pilots

The UK is working hard to share spectrum more effectively - by applying new dynamic sharing technology to tap unused TV white spaces, in the first instance. The TV white spaces are gaps left in the UHF TV broadcast bands (the frequency range is 470 to 790 MHz), to prevent high power TV broadcasts from interfering with each other. These gaps have already been used intensively within theatres, studios and other venues, for wireless microphones and other programme-making devices (referred to as PMSE applications) - however much capacity remains untapped across the UK.

Last month BBC Newsnight featured news of how white space technology could help rural broadband on the Isle of Wight and life in future cities - beginning in Glasgow.

Now, Ofcom has just released details of the white spaces applications across the UK, being carried out under the umbrella of its UK TV White Spaces Pilot. The applications range from allowing Orkney ferry users to stay connected to the Internet, to enabling London Zoo's meerkats to start their own live Youtube channel. Broadband connections as well as 'Internet of Things' applications feature in the deployments.

Larkhill is pleased to be closely connected with the Glasgow white spaces pilot - working (on behalf of Microsoft) with 6Harmonics, the Centre for White Space Communications (University of Strathclyde), Mediatek, Sky, Spectrum Bridge, and the Scottish Government. The Glasgow Pilot builds on experience from an earlier trial of TV white spaces in improving broadband on the Isle of Bute. 

The broad geographic spread of diverse applications illustrates the growing UK interest this technology - following action by US regulators to allow licence exempt use of the technology, back in 2010. Regulators in Africa and Asia are now following UK and US regulatory developments in this field.

The Dynamic Spectrum Alliance (whose members include Facebook, Google and Microsoft) has been assisting with the development of pilot white space deployments across Africa and Asia (where Singapore is particularly well advanced in its preparations to allow commercial applications of the white spaces technology). In Europe, the CEPT and ETSI have both laid important foundations for enabling this technology to be used in a harmonised way across the single market.

Wi-Fi is being adapted to take advantage of the improved coverage that white spaces enables - indoors and outside. The new IEEE 802.11af standard builds on the Gigabit performance offered by 802.11ac, by adding capacity in the TV white spaces bands. This is achieved through the new dynamic spectrum access technology, in which devices consult geolocation databases to determine which UHF channels they can use and with what power limit. So we can look forward to Wi-Fi access points which offer three bands: TV whitespaces as well as 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz.

Ofcom expects to complete its process for allowing licence exempt use of this spectrum (and hence commercialisation), early in the new year.

Larkhill has been following the process since around 2006 from early days in the US through to today - so we are well placed to help organisations that wish to understand the potential impact of this exciting new technology.

Poor digital connectivity imposes costs on public services

A recent report commissioned by O2 and the Centre for Economic and Business Research (CEBR) highlights the significant costs that poor connectivity imposes on public services. This issue is especially important for front-line staff, who could use mobile devices to make it easier to complete records etc. whilst in the field with their clients. With poor wireless network coverage in a number of the target areas, however, the workers have to follow a more time consuming process - with paper-based forms etc.. 

More details are available in this article on .

Release of UHF channels is good for M2M in the UK

The UK regulator, Ofcom, has announced that it is making two 6 channels (870-876 and 915-921 MHz) available for use by Short Range Devices, on a licence exempt basis. Its statement also forsees the need to authorise higher power applications and will be working on a mechanism for this. The latter could be useful for wide area network applications such car-related communication, smart metering and a host of other possible Internet of Things (machine to machine networks) (a similarly positioned band in the US has proved very popular for this purpose).

To encourage innovation, Ofcom has sought to make access requirements as neutral as possible

Power constraints arise from the risk to railway communication systems using E-GSM-R. This appears to be an area where Ofcom could in future apply dynamic spectrum access technology (i.e. geolocation) to enable constraints to be restricted to areas where the railway infrastructure is located.




The race for faster Wi-Fi

The already fierce competition between Wi-Fi chipset vendors seems to be intensifying. Recently we have seen announcements of new developments relating to the latest Wi-Fi standard (802.11 ac), with claims of up to 10 Gbps in the coming year or two.

Two factors are behind this - (a) the use of channel bonding, whereby channels (especially in the more capacious 5 Ghz band) are grouped to gain a wider path for the signals (up to 160 MHz); (b) the latest variants in multiple antenna configurations (Multi input Multi output (MIMO)).

  • Channel bonding is important to the latest performance plans, including bridging capacity in 2.4 and 5 GHz bands together. It would be assisted by an extension of the 5 GHz licence exempt access rights (as proposed by WiFi forward and apparently now backed by the FCC).
  • MIMO, which makes use of multiple signal paths between devices, is also a key tool in reaching the high performance claims. Broadcom has announced that it is planning 6-stream devices which could support up to 3.2 Gbps throughput, whilst a new competitor Quantenna claims that it will be able to use 8 steams (with an 8 x 8 antenna configuration) to achieve up to 10 Gbps.

Both of these vendors are targetting the home access point market, which has promising growth potential over the coming years, as ISPs ramp up the bandwidth of access networks. The ISPs will be looking to use the new access points to gain additional revenues from offering services such as data offload, for example, to mobile operators.


The race for mobile capacity - small and dynamic is beautiful

The World WiFi and Small Cell Summit , 28th-29th October 2014 in Barcelona, attracted industry representatives from across the globe, focussing on technology advances that will enable operators to service the growing demands for mobile connectivity.

There were two strands to the proceedings – Wi-Fi and Small Cells. Originally there had also been plans for a Cloud Radio Access Network (CRAN) strand, but it had been contracted and interwoven with the other strands.

Given that many of the target audience were service providers, it was not surprising that there was much in common between the Wi-Fi and Small Cell strands. The emphasis on needing to ‘densify’ coverage was shared – with Wi-Fi as the ideal for maximising capacity, given the high degree of spectrum use. Coverage in buildings was also an issue, where again Wi-Fi has much to offer. There is an increasing interest in managing Wi-Fi and integrating it into service platforms, alongside licensed network technologies. Other themes included:

  • Centralisation of base station functionality – whether for small cells or macro cells, using either fibre or high capacity wireless front haul technologies to link antennas to a central hub. The central hub could be cloud-based ultimately with functionality being provided scalably via software. This offers operating cost savings, yields more efficient coverage and is more flexible to adapt to rapidly evolving market requirements
  • Aggregration of bands to increase throughtput - even across traditional licenced /licence-exempt boundaries. Thus Wi-Fi cellular hybrids start to appear in the picture, with integration in the service platform rather than in end-user client devices.

Larkhill’s contribution to the event was a presentation on the opportunity of using dynamic spectrum access technology to use spectrum more efficiently, with TV white spaces providing a global opportunity to create a really powerful extension to Wi-Fi. We also highlighted the need to address resiliency, ad-hoc flexibility and coverage – as well as the growing capacity requirements for mobile access networks. You can see a summary of our presentation here.


TV White Spaces in your new TV receiver ?

With TV white spaces having been given the green light to become a real commercial proposition in the UK this year - with many other countries at different stages of their regulatory journey, the technology may soon start to be incorporated in a range of consumer as well as professional devices.

Our founder, Andrew Stirling, was quoted in a recent article in Videonet by digital broadcasting columnist Barry Flynn, discussing the prospects for TV white spaces coming to a TV set near you. After all the UHF bands which are home to TV white spaces are already well catered for in terrestrial TV receivers and antenna systems.

UK gives the green light to TV white spaces and opens door to DSA

Ofcom has just announced that it is proceeding with the opening of licence exempt access to the TV white spaces.This is a landmark decision, opening the door to a new era in more flexible access to spectrum. It complements the forms of spectrum access, largely licensed, by exploiting new dynamic spectrum access (DSA) technology

DSA allows unused spectrum capacity to be identified e.g. through a national database of available channels in each area. This means that devices which need to form a link can do so without disrupting established services and applications. In the case of TV white spaces, the established uses include Digital Terrestrial Television (the primary spectrum user) and wireless microphones (and related equipment, referred to as 'Programme Making and Special Events' (PMSE) devices)

DSA enables spectrum to be used more efficiently, by allowing opportunistic access to unused pockets of capacity - e.g. in rural areas. Users or communities can purchase their own equipment to take advantage of this spectrum - e.g. to fill holes in broadband coverage, complementing service availability from national operators, for example.

After working with industry over a number of years and learning from the FCC experience, Ofcom developed a frameowrk for using the TV white spaces. It has been conducting a Pilot of this framework since 2013, in which a number of projects from across the UK have been taking part. Scotland has seen a number of interesting deployments - starting with the first UK TVWS trial network , back in 2011, then with the University of Strathclyde's city centre campus deployment (Glasgow) and more recently the pilot network aimed at bringing Wi-Fi to Orkney ferries. Ofcom's release lists these together with an appealing zoo animal watch application provided by Google and a flood detection network in Oxford - with LoveHz and Nominet cooperating.



UK Spectrum Forum - can broadcasters speak peace unto mobile operators?

The UK Goverment (DCMS) published its UK Spectrum Strategy a few months ago and has won international praise for its forward looking approach. Larkhill chaired a session at a recent conference on the latest developments in spectrum policy and applications in Bratislava (CERD 2014) at which there was praise for the UK approach - in recognising the need for such a strategy as well as the quality of its content.

Last week Larkhill contributed a talk on the importance of white spaces/dynamic spectrum access to a session of the UK Spectrum Forum, whose industry members will help to shape the development of the strategy in the years ahead. Represented there were broadcasters, PMSE representatives and mobile operators. The latter is looking to gain more spectrum whilst the others are seeking to hold on to what they currently enjoy.

Our presentation stressed the importance of enabling opportunistic access, to tap into the large amounts of unused spectrum capacity. We identified TV white spaces as the first key step on this road, but forsaw the increasing importance of opportunistic. licence-exempt spectrum access more generally - serving the growing wireless connectivity needs as well as enabling innovations to flow more quickly into the market. In the years ahead, we see distribution networks becoming more complex and hybrid in nature, using a range of physical channels and adapting to consumer needs.

Although white spaces are threaten by compaction of the broadcast bands, this will not happen overnight and in the meantime regions such as Europe are likely suffer fragmentation in the availability of bands for mobile broadband. Such fragmentation is a perfect fit with the capabilities of dynamic spectrum access technologies - particularly geolocation databases. In the longer term, we expect to see the emergence of bands reserved for sharing on a licence exempt basis through the use of dynamic spectrum access. Regulators might include some reservation capabilities in such bands (as currently applies with PMSE use of white spaces), but the incentives should be there to limit any exclusivity (geographically and temporally) and thereby enable greater efficiency of spectrum use.

We encouraged industry to work together to implement the UK Strategy - in tangible practical ways. The Cambridge White Spaces Trial showed the benefits of different interests working together in achieving a result that moved UK and EU policy forward more quickly than would have been achieved through the customary partisan lobbying.



White spaces made easy - thanks to DSA Model Rules

Members of Regulatory Affairs group of the Dynamic Spectrum Alliance (DSA) have been putting their heads together to review regulatory practice across the world, on access to the TV white spaces and have assembled a Model set of rules. Most of the development work on regulations has been undertaken by the FCC and Ofcom (UK), working with industry.

The intention is to help administrations which have not yet investigated introduction of TV white spaces technology to get up the learning curve faster. The documents provided on the DSA website include:

  1. The Model Rules backgrounder introduces the significance of access to the TV white spaces and the key components of the sharing mechanism designed to protect existing users of the band, namely terrestrial TV viewers and wireless microphone users
  2. Suggested Technical Rules and Regulations for the Use of Television White Spaces

  3. Frequently Asked Questions 

The model rules are based around the use of geolocation databases, with white space devices reporting their positioning in order to determine what spectrum is available to use. They include the concept of master and client devices, where the master device acts an intermediary between client devices and databases. Clients need only consult their local master device in order to determine which channels are safe to use.

White spaces ride to the rescue of rural communities - in UK and Africa

The potential of TV white space spectrum to assist with improving broadband for rural communities is rapidly gaining wider recognition.

In the UK, as regulator Ofcom proceeds with a UK pilot of its proposed TV white spaces regulation, the BBC has been looking at what the opening up of this unused spectrum could mean for rural communities.

The TV white spaces are gaps left between frequencies used for terrestrial television broadcasting in the frequency range 470-790 MHz. Prior to the emergence of dynamic spectrum sharing technology, this spare capacity was considered too fragmented and sensitive for mass market applications. Its use has hitherto been confined to wireless microphones and other programme-making/events equipments - but event these only use the space capacity in certain times and places - not often in rural areas afflicted with poor broadband. Ofcom has committed to opening up this spectrum by early 2015.

A recent BBC news report covered developments on the Isle of Wight and in Scotland, to try to project what this technology could bring to help solved the urban-rural broadband gap in the years to come. The Isle of Wight segment covered both rural broadband and application to life boat communications - areas which have proved challenging for commercial deployments in the past.[Those in the UK can enjoy this BBC TV Newsnight piece - see 38:55 mins from the start]

Separately, BBC Radio 4 carried an interview on its Farming Today programme (28th August) (8 mins 15 secs from start) with white spaces pioneer, Malcolm Brew , from the Centre for White Space Communications at University of Strathclyde. Malcolm who is busy deploying white spaces technology to bring Internet connections to rural African communities, talked about life has been transformed life for the community on Bute through its white spaces pilot project - letting farmers register their livestock and pubs order beer online.

At the same time, Microsoft has announced that a major new white spaces pilot project has commenced in Namibia, in South Africa, covering the largest land area yet attempted with the technology (9,424 km²). There are 28 schools now enjoying Internet access under the scheme . The partners behind this included Microsoft, MyDigitalBridge and radio suppliers Adaptrum - with funding from the Millennium Challenge Corporation and Millennium Challenge Account (MCA)-Namibia.

Wi-Fi at your service

With the amazing proliferation of devices with Wi-Fi interfaces, there is growing interest in enterprises in providing efficient high quality coverage.

Many consumers report high satisfaction with their Wi-Fi at home, but have had mixed experiences on the move and in popular meeting spots such as coffee shops, hotel lobbies, conference suites etc.. These hotspots are especially important for visitors from other countries, who incurr roaming charges on their use of mobile/cellular data services.

In a home or small office, it is relatively straightforward to deploy Wi-Fi and obtain a high quality connection. In more dense public spaces, however the deployment of WiFi requires more planning and needs to be monitored (e.g. so that adjavcet hotspots do not interfere with each other and that crashed access points are restored quickly.

This creates opportunitis for enterprise Wi-Fi solutions, such as is offered by Aruba and Cisco. Recently in the news has been a company called Aerohive, which offers Wi-Fi solutions using cooperation between adjacent devices. The devices form what the company calls a 'hive' and communicate with each other to assure good network coverage and performance.

Aerohive's recent IPO indicated the strong market interest - with an estimated value of over $400m. It is a sign of growing demand for 'Wi-Fi as a Service', which allows businesses to beneft from this utility, without the need to invest in technical skills and resources.


Wi-Fi hotspots now at 44m and counting

The number of Wi-Fi hotspots continues to grow, worldwide. A recent report published by the largest commercial international Wi-Fi service provider, iPass, provides a current status for the availability of Wi-Fi hotspots in different countries and estimates future growth. Its live map shows how the over 44 million hotspots are distributed across the globe.  Three quarters of these are hosted by domestic access points. Half of the total number are available to iPass subscribers (mostly business people) to enable them to enjoy roaming connections.

The USA, France and the UK (which has with a hot-spot for every 11 people) occupy the three top places in terms of hot-spot density. By 2018, iPass estimates that there will be 340m hot-spots - one for every 20 people on the planet.

With the rapid expansion of demand for capacity, there has been great commercial interest in building networks of Wi-Fi hotspots – facilitated by at least the operating costs being picked up by end users. Internet service providers typically supply Wi-Fi access points as part of the broadband access service and now increasingly see these as an attractive means of supporting a comprehensive Wi-Fi coverage. This coverage can translate into revenues from mobile operators seeking to offload traffic from cellular hotspots as well as end users who explicitly need Wi-Fi access as they move around.

BT operates a service called Openzone – based on around 5m access points deployed in customer premises across the UK. In return for allowing their own access network to be partitioned (into private and public networks), these customers can enjoy BT Wi-Fi access when they are travelling around.

Larkhill recently presented at the World WiFi Summit, in Barcelona on 29th October 2014. Our talk introduced the topic of dynamic sharing of the white spaces spectrum (DSA) and its implications for the future of Wi-Fi - particularly noting the recent publication of the IEEE 802.11 af standard, which adds TV white spaces to the growing family of Wi-Fi bands (currently 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz).

Sources of the iPass news: Marvedis-Rethink,Electronics Weekly

Wireless brings hope for extending broadband in India

Much attention over the last year has been paid to extending broadband coverage in Africa. Given that three quarters of the population of Africa live in rural areas, the technical and commercial challenges of achieving universal access are great. Microsoft's 4Afrika projects have been showing how new wireless technology, based on dynamic spectrum access (DSA) and the TV white spaces, can enable broadband coverage to be provided more affordably than before.

Now a report in the Times of India refers to a proposal by Microsoft to bring the DSA/white spaces technology to help tackle rural broadband challenges in India. Apparently the proposal was made during a recent visit to India by Microsoft's CEO - whose roots are in Hyderabad.

The results of study of white space availability in India was published by Gaurang Naik et al from Indian Institute of Technology Bombay...., in 2013. It concluded that an average of 100 MHz is available, across India. - and that only 4 UHF channels (32 MHz) would be needed to provide comprehensive terrestrial TV coverage, if the networks were replanned more efficiently.